01.2
14

Cardinal Numbers 11-30 in spanish

by tracy ·

Here are the numbers 11-20:

11. once 12. doce 13. trece 14. catorce 15. quince 16. dieciséis 17. diecisiete 18. dieciocho 19. diecinueve 20. veinte

Here are the numbers 21-30:

21. veintiuno 22. veintidós 23. veintitrés 24. veinticuatro 25. veinticinco 26. veintiséis 27. veintisiete 28. veintiocho 29. veintinueve 30. treinta

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01.1
14

Days of the Week

by tracy ·

Also known as Castilian, due to its origins in the Castile region of Spain, Spanish is the official language of Spain. It’s also spoken across Central and South American countries which were former Spanish colonies, and more recently in the USA due to migration from its southern neighbours

In Africa, Spanish is spoken in Equatorial Guinea and the disputed territory of Western Sahara. In Asia, there are still remnants of the language in the Philippines

In Spanish-speaking countries, the week begins on Monday.

lunes Monday

martes Tuesday

miércoles Wednesday

jueves Thursday

viernes Friday

sábado Saturday

domingo Sunday

Notice that the days of the week are not capitalized.

lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo

The days of the week are all masculine.

el lunes el martes el miércoles el jueves el viernes el sábado el domingo

When used with the days of the week, the definite article has the special meaning “on.”

No trabajo el lunes. I don’t work on Monday.

No trabajo los martes. I don’t work on Tuesdays.

Hay una fiesta el miércoles. There is a party on Wednesday.

Hay muchas fiestas los viernes. There are many parties on Fridays.

Days of the week ending in -s do not change form in the plural. Only the article changes.

el lunes los lunes

el martes los martes

el miércoles los miércoles

el jueves los jueves

el viernes los viernes

el sábado los sábados

el domingo los domingos

Use the verb ser to express the day. You will soon learn more about this verb. For now, simply realize that the word “es” is a conjugation of that verb, and is the correct verb in this use.

¿Qué día es hoy? What day is today?

Hoy es lunes. Today is Monday.

Mañana es martes. Tomorrow is Tuesday.

Notice that the following actions do not occur in the present, but rather in the near future.

Salimos el lunes. We leave on Monday.

Mañana es domingo. Tomorrow is Sunday.

In Spanish, the present tense of the indicative is sometimes used to express the near future. English does this too.

Salimos el lunes. We (will) leave on Monday.

Mañana es domingo. Tomorrow (will be) is Sunday.

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12.30
13

Spanish Adjectives

by tracy ·

Because English and Spanish share many words of Latin origin, you will already be able to recognise more than 3,000 Spanish words!

For example, most English words ending in -tion end in -ción, e.g.
atención, publicación, liberación

There are also loan words in English of Spanish origin, including tornado, bonanza or patio. In addition, you’ll find many familiar American place names, dating back to the times of the Conquistadors: Los Ángeles, city of angels, Las Vegas, the dales, Nevada, snowy land, Florida, flowery and, yes, Amarillo, the Spanish for yellow

Spanish Adjectives: Part I

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

Adjectives are frequently descriptive. That is, most often adjectives are used to describe a noun, or distinguish the noun from a group of similar objects. For example, an adjective might describe the color of an object.

the red pen the blue pen

In Spanish, most adjectives change form, depending upon whether the word they modify is masculine or feminine. Notice the difference between “the tall boy” and “the tall girl.”

el chico alto la chica alta

Adjectives also change form depending upon whether the word they modify is singular or plural. Notice the difference between “the tall boy” and “the tall boys” ; “the tall girl” and “the tall girls.”

el chico alto los chicos altos

la chica alta las chicas altas

Many common adjectives end in -o. These adjectives have four forms. The following words all mean “tall”:

alto alta altos altas

The correct form of the adjective depends upon the noun it modifies. Is the noun masculine or feminine? Singular or plural?

libro rojo red book

pluma roja red pen

libros rojos red books

plumas rojas red pens

Notice how the endings of the nouns and these adjectives are similar.

libro rojo pluma roja libros rojos plumas rojas

Adjectives that end in -e also change form for singular or plural. To form the plural, simply add -s.

la chica inteligente las chicas inteligentes

Adjectives that end in -e do not, however, change form for masculine or feminine.

la chica inteligente el chico inteligente

las chicas inteligentes los chicos inteligentes

Similarly, most adjectives that end in a consonant do change form for singular or plural, but do not change for masculine or feminine. To form the plural, add -es.

la chica popular el chico popular

las chicas populares los chicos populares

Let’s review.

  • Adjectives that end in -o have four forms: alto, alta, altos, altas
  • Adjectives that end in -e have two forms: inteligente, inteligentes
  • Most adjectives that end in a consonant have two forms: popular, populares (form plural by adding -es)

Many adjectives of nationality end in -o. These adjectives follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in -o. That is, they have four forms.

el muchacho mexicano la muchacha mexicana

los muchachos mexicanos las muchachas mexicanas

Many other adjectives of nationality end in a consonant. These adjectives do not follow the same rules as other adjectives ending in a consonant, rather, they have a distinct feminine form ending in -a.

el muchacho español la muchacha española

los muchachos españoles las muchachas españolas

There is another group of adjectives that does not follow the normal rules. Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín also have a feminine form.

el chico hablador la chica habladora

los chicos habladores las chicas habladoras

el hombre trabajador la mujer trabajadora

los hombres trabajadores las mujeres trabajadoras

Note: Adjectives ending in “-erior” do not have a feminine form.

Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.

el chico alto la chica alta los libros pequeños las plumas rojas

Adjectives of quantity almost always come before the noun. Such adjectives tell how much or how many.

pocos libros mucha energía mucho trabajo pocas casas

Sometimes, a descriptive adjective can precede the noun. If the adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first.

la blanca nieve the white snow (snow is inherently white)

los altos picos the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)

Let’s review the last two lessons.

Adjectives that end in -o have four forms.

alto alta altos altas

Adjectives of nationality ending in -o are no different from other such adjectives.

guatemalteco guatemalteca guatemaltecos guatemaltecas

Adjectives that end in -e have two forms.

inteligente inteligentes

Most adjectives ending with a consonant have two forms.

popular populares

Adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant have four forms.

español española españoles españolas

Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín have  four forms.

hablador habladora habladores habladoras

Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe.

casa blanca chica alta

When an adjective speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective precedes the noun.

la blanca nieve los altos picos

Adjectives of quantity usually come before the noun.

pocos libros muchos libros

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12.29
13

Spanish grammer Regular Verbs 1

by tracy ·

Spanish is generally thought of as one of the easier languages to learn. It’s a phonetic language, meaning the way it’s written is the way it’s pronounced

The biggest differences in grammar include the use of gender, agreements and a more extensive verb conjugation with six different endings for each tense

The variations between the Spanish spoken in Spain and Latin American Spanish mainly lie in pronunciation and intonation but they won’t hamper communication!

Regular Verbs: Part I

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

All Spanish verbs are either “regular” or “irregular.” In this lesson we will look at three completely regular verbs:

hablar (to speak) comer (to eat) vivir (to live)

Notice the last two letters of each verb.

hablar (to speak) comer (to eat) vivir (to live)

There are three categories of verbs:

-ar verbs (like hablar) -er verbs (like comer) -ir verbs (like vivir)

All three categories are infinitives. You will recall from a previous lesson that infinitives are the base form of the verb, equivalent in English to: to speak, to eat, to live, etc. In Spanish, all infinitives end in -ar, -er, or -ir.

-ar verb hablar (to speak)

-er verb comer (to eat)

-ir verb vivir (to live)

Remember what it means to conjugate a verb:

to speak

I speak you speak he speaks she speaks we speak you-all speak they speak

In this lesson, you will learn to conjugate our model verbs for I, you (formal), we, and you-all (formal).

hablar – to speak

yo hablo
I speak
usted habla
you speak
nosotros/as hablamos
we speak
ustedes hablan
you-all speak

comer – to eat

yo como
I eat
usted come
you eat
nosotros/as comemos
we eat
ustedes comen
you-all eat

vivir – to live

yo vivo
I live
usted vive
you live
nosotros/as vivimos
we live
ustedes viven
you-all live

Look for a pattern in the yo form.

yo hablo yo como yo vivo

If the subject is I (yo), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -o.

yo hablo (hablar – ar + o = hablo) yo como (comer – er + o = como) yo vivo (vivir – ir + o = vivo)

Look for a pattern in the usted form.

usted habla usted come usted vive

If the subject is you formal (usted) drop the ending and add either -a or -e. If the verb is an -ar verb, add -a. If it is an -er or -ir verb, add -e.

usted habla (hablar – ar + a = habla) usted come (comer – er + e = come) usted vive (vivir – ir + e = vive)

Look for a pattern in the nosotros/as form.

nosotros/as hablamos nosotros/as comemos nosotros/as vivimos

If the subject is we (nosotros/as), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -amos, -emos, or -imos.

Notice that the ending of the infinitive determines which is used: -ar verbs add -amos, -er verbs add -emos, -ir verbs add -imos.

nosotros/as hablamos (hablar – ar + amos = hablamos)

nosotros/as comemos (comer – er + emos = comemos)

nosotros/as vivimos (vivir – ir + imos = vivimos)

Look for a pattern in the ustedes form.

ustedes hablan ustedes comen ustedes viven

If the subject is you-all (ustedes), conjugate by dropping the ending and add -an or -en. If the verb is an -ar verb, add -an. If it is an -er or an -ir verb, add -en.

ustedes hablan (hablar – ar + an = hablan)

ustedes comen (comer – er + en = comen)

ustedes viven (vivir – ir + en = viven)

Present tense (indicative) in Spanish means three things.

  1. Yo hablo inglés:
    I speak English. I do speak English. I am speaking English.
  2. Yo como pan:
    I eat bread. I do eat bread. I am eating bread.
  3. Yo vivo en Buenos Aires:
    I live in Buenos Aires. I do live in Buenos Aires. I am living in Buenos Aires.

It is vital that you continue with your collection of verb flashcards. This will be your key to success in mastering the Spanish verbs. Continue by creating 4 additional cards, writing the words in bold on one side and the conjugations on the other side:

Present Indicative

I speak I do speak I am speaking

hablar (to speak)

hablo habla hablamos hablan

comer (to eat)

como come comemos comen

vivir (to live)

vivo vive vivimos viven

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12.28
13

Subject Pronouns Spanish gammer

by tracy ·

 

Subject Pronouns

There are plenty of jokes or chistes in Spanish covering politics, doctors, the police forces, the military or other nationalities. And when telling jokes, political correctness is generally less observed than in English.

So here are two ‘safe’ examples:
- Doctor, doctor, no puedo recordar nada – Vaya, y desde cuándo tiene usted este problema? – ¿Qué problema? – Doctor, doctor, I can’t remember anything – Oh well, and how long have you had this problem? – What problem?

- Doctor, ¿usted cree que podré vivir 40 años más? – Depende. ¿Usted parrandea con sus amigos? – No, doctor – ¿Bebe? – No, doctor – ¿Fuma? – No, doctor – ¿Tiene pareja? – No, doctor – ¿Y para qué diablos quiere usted vivir 40 años más? – Doctor, do you think I could live 40 years longer? – Depends. Do you party hard with your friends? – No, doctor – Do you drink? – No, doctor – Do you smoke? – No, doctor – Do you have a partner? – No, doctor – So why on earth do you want to live 40 years longer?

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

A verb is an action word.

run sit eat sink swim study

The main form of a verb is called the infinitive. In English, infinitives include the word “to.”

to run to sit to eat to sink to swim to study

The infinitive is the pure form of a verb. The infinitive is like a lump of clay that can be molded to match the subject of the sentence it is used in:

I speak you speak he/she speaks

we speak you-all* speak

they speak

Note: The above forms are called conjugations of the infinitive “to speak.”

Regarding the form “you-all” — this usage is not considered to be standard English. In standard English, the same word is used for both the singular you and the plural you. That is, each of the following is correct:

You have a tail light out, ma’am. You (kids) have soccer practice at four.

In the first sentence, “you” refers to the singular “ma’am.” In the second sentence, “you” refers to the plural “kids.” To avoid confusion between you (singular) and you (plural), we will employ the non-standard English usage “you-all” to indicate you (plural). This will be very beneficial to y’all, particularly at the beginning of your studies.

The words “I” “you” “he” “she” “we” “you-all” and “they” are called subject pronouns. Spanish has corresponding subject pronouns. Here’s a list of the English subject pronouns and their Spanish equivalents:

yo
I
usted
you
él
he
ella
she
nosotros
we
ustedes
you-all
ellos
they

Spanish subject pronouns are both similar to and different from their English counterparts. Let’s examine some of the differences. Look more closely at the English word “you.”

You have just seen that this can be translated into Spanish as “usted.” But there is also a second way it can be translated. There are two ways the English word “you” can be expressed in Spanish:

usted
you
you

Spanish has a formal and an informal form of the word “you.” “Usted” is more formal and is generally used to express respect. “Tú” is more familiar and is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child.

Speaking to your boss: usted Speaking to your daughter: Speaking to your teacher: usted Speaking to your friend:

usted = you formal

= you informal (familiar)

This same distinction with regard to degree of formality occurs in the plural form as well. When referring to “you-all,” there are two choices in Spanish:

ustedes you-all formal

vosotros you-all familiar

Once again, the difference lies in the degree of formality conveyed by the speaker. However, the vosotros form is used primarily in Spain. Throughout Latin America, “ustedes” is generally used in both formal and informal situations to refer to “you-all.”

Speaking to a group of children (in Spain): vosotros

Speaking to a group of children (in Latin America): ustedes

Speaking to a group of strangers (in Spain): ustedes

Speaking to a group of strangers (in Latin America): ustedes

Note: usted can be abbreviated Ud. or Vd. ; ustedes can be abbreviated Uds. or Vds.

In many ways, Spanish is more gender-specific than English. We find evidence of this in the subject pronouns. First, look at the word “nosotros.” This means “we” in the sense of a group containing at least one male. If the group contains only females, the word “nosotras” is used. So, in Spanish, there are two ways to say “we”:

nosotros we (masculine or mixed group)

nosotras we (feminine)

This same idea applies to the English word “they”:

ellos they (masculine or mixed group)

ellas they (feminine)

This same idea also applies to the “vosotros” form:

vosotros you-all familiar (masculine or mixed group)

vosotras you-all familiar (feminine)

Note: These forms are used primarily in Spain, not Latin America.

Finally, don’t get confused over the difference between talking to a group or talking about a group. Consider the following statement, which could have been made by your Spanish teacher, while standing before the class:

“You-all need to study your Spanish. Those students in the other class don’t need to study Spanish. They are studying French. You-all can practice Spanish in Spain. They can practice French in France.”

The teacher is talking to the Spanish students and about the French students.

Talking to a group, use “you-all”:

ustedes vosotros vosotras

Talking about a group, use “they”:

ellos ellas

Here’s the complete list of Spanish subject pronouns:

Singular

yo – I – you (familiar) él – he ella – she usted – you (formal)

Plural

nosotros
we (masculine or mixed gender)
nosotras
we (feminine)
vosotros
you-all (familiar, Spain, masculine or mixed gender)
vosotras
you-all (familiar, Spain, feminine)
ellos
they (masculine or mixed gender)
ellas
they (feminine)
ustedes
you-all (formal in Spain, formal and familiar in Latin America)
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12.27
13

The Verb Form “hay”

by tracy ·

 

The Verb Form “hay”

Spanish is a Romance language, ie of Latin origin. Romance languages share a similar grammatical structure and there are often similarities in vocabulary

If you learn Spanish, you’ll have a head start in learning other languages such as French, Portuguese, Italian, Catalan or Romanian

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

The verb form “hay” has two meanings:

there is there are

Examples:

Hay muchos libros en la biblioteca. There are many books in the library.

Hay un libro encima de la mesa. There is a book on the table.

Más ejemplos:

Hay dos baños en mi casa. There are two baths in my house.

Hay cuatro océanos en el mundo. There are 4 oceans in the world.

Hay un libro y una pluma en la mesa. There is one book and one pen on the table. or: There is a book and a pen on the table.

When used in questions, “hay” has two different meanings:

Is there? Are there?

Ejemplos:

¿Hay un hotel en el centro? Is there a hotel downtown?

¿Hay algunos libros por aquí? Are there any books around here?

Más ejemplos:

¿Hay muchos estudiantes en la clase? Are there lots of students in the class?

¿Hay cuatro sillas en el cuarto? Are there 4 chairs in the room?

¿Hay una chica o dos? Is there one girl or two?

The verb form “hay” can also be used to answer questions.

¿Hay un hotel en el centro? Is there a hotel downtown?

Sí. Sí hay. Yes. Yes there is.

¿Hay algunos libros por aquí? Are there any books around here?

No. No hay. No. No there aren’t.

It is vital that you begin a collection of verb flashcards. This will be your key to success in mastering the Spanish verbs. We will tell you when you need to add a card to this collection. Begin by creating a card with the verb form “hay” on one side, and the English translations on the other side:

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12.25
13

Definite and Indefinite Articles: Part I

by tracy ·

Spanish is a Romance language, ie of Latin origin. Romance languages share a similar grammatical structure and there are often similarities in vocabulary

If you learn Spanish, you’ll have a head start in learning other languages such as French, Portuguese, Italian, Catalan or Romanian

Definite and Indefinite Articles: Part I

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

The difference between definite articles and indefinite articles can be  observed in the following two sentences:

Give me the chocolate chip cookie. Give me a cookie, please.

Imagine a plate full of cookies. There are peanut butter cookies, sugar cookies, gingerbread cookies, and one chocolate chip cookie.

The first sentence speaks of a particular (or definite) cookie:

Give me the chocolate chip cookie.

The second sentence speaks of any of a number of cookies (or an indefinite cookie):

Give me a cookie, please.

The difference between the definite and indefinite articles is the difference between talking about a specific cookie, or any old cookie at all.

the cookie a cookie

In English, the definite article is the word “the” regardless of whether the noun it introduces is singular or plural.

the cookie the cookies

In Spanish, the definite article has 4 forms, depending on whether the noun is masculine, feminine, singular or plural.

el gato
the male cat
los gatos
the male cats
la gata
the female cat
las gatas
the female cats

Note: The masculine plural definite and indefinite articles (los, unos) are also used to indicate a group of mixed sex. Thus, “los gatos” could refer to a group of 10 male cats, or it could refer to a group of 9 female cats and one male cat.

The 4 forms of the definite article are:

el
masculine singular
la
feminine singular
los
masculine plural
las
feminine plural

In English, the indefinite article is the word “a,” “an,” or “some.”

a cookie an apple some books

In Spanish, the indefinite article has 4 forms, depending on whether the  noun is masculine, feminine, singular or plural.

un gato
a male cat
unos gatos
some male cats
una gata
a female cat
unas gatas
some female cats

Note: Remember, as long as the group of creatures has at least one male member, the masculine plural article is used. Thus, “unos gatos” could refer to a group of 10 male cats, or it could refer to a group of 9 female cats and one male cat.

The 4 forms of the indefinite article are:

un
masculine singular
una
feminine singular
unos
masculine plural
unas
feminine plural

Here are the definite and indefinite articles together:

el, un
masculine singular
la, una
feminine singular
los, unos
masculine plural
las, unas
feminine plural

Each of the following has a different meaning:

el gato
the male cat
los gatos
the male cats (or a mixed group)
la gata
the female cat
las gatas
the female cats
un gato
a male cat
unos gatos
some male cats (or a mixed group)
una gata
a female cat
unas gatas
some female cats

“Un” and “una” can mean “one,” “a,” or “an.”

un libro
one book, a book
una pluma
one pen, a pen
una manzana
one apple, an apple
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12.24
13

Plural Forms of Nouns

by tracy ·

If you want to tell someone you love him or her in Spanish, do you say te amo or te quiero? Any good dictionary will tell you that either amar or querer (and even some other verbs such as desear, gustar and encantar) can be translated in some contexts as “to love.”

Plural Forms of Nouns

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

If a noun ends in a vowel, make it plural by adding -s.

libro: libros
(libro + s)
pluma: plumas
(pluma + s)
chico: chicos
(chico + s)
señora: señoras
(señora + s)

The definite articles (el, la) also change in the plural form. They become “los” and “las.” The definite articles will be covered in depth in the next lesson.

el libro: los libros

la pluma: las plumas

el chico: los chicos

la señora: las señoras

If a noun ends in a consonant, make it plural by adding -es.

el borrador: los borradores
(borrador + es)
la universidad: las universidades
(universidad + es)
el profesor: los profesores
(profesor + es)
la ciudad: las ciudades
(ciudad + es)

If a noun ends in -ión, add -es and drop the written accent.

el avión: los aviones

la conversación: las conversaciones

la sección: las secciones

la televisión: las televisiones

Note: You may wonder why “avión” isn’t feminine. Notice that it doesn’t qualify for our rule which says that all nouns ending in -ción and sión are feminine.

If a noun ends in -z, add -es and change the z to c.

el lápiz: los lápices

la voz: las voces

el tapiz: los tapices

la actriz: las actrices

When the plural refers to two or more nouns of different genders, the masculine plural is used.

2 perros + 6 perras = 8 perros (not perras) 1 gato + 8 gatas = 9 gatos (not gatas)

A few nouns are “compound nouns,” that is, they are formed by combining two words into one.

(Example: abre + latas = abrelatas / open + cans = can opener)

These compound nouns are always masculine, and the plural is formed by changing the “el” to “los.”

el abrelatas los abrelatas

el paraguas los paraguas

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12.23
13

Cardinal Numbers: 1-10

by tracy ·

Cardinal Numbers: 1-10

Notes:

  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

Here are the numbers 1-10:

1. uno 2. dos 3. tres 4. cuatro 5. cinco 6. seis 7. siete 8. ocho 9. nueve 10. diez

The number “one” changes from “uno” to “un” before a masculine noun.

un libro
one book
un perro
one dog (male)
un hombre
one man

The number “one” changes from “uno” to “una” before a feminine noun.

una pluma
one pen
una gata
one cat (female)
una chica
one girl

When counting generically (one, two, three …) use “uno” but when counting specifically (one cat, one dog), use “un” or “una.”

un libro
one book
una pluma
one pen
uno, dos, tres
one, two, three
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12.22
13

Gender of Nouns: Part II

by tracy ·

Home / Grammar / Topic

Gender of Nouns: Part II

Notes: 1.The written lesson is below. 2.Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

Masculine nouns that end in a consonant often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in -a.

el profesor  la profesora

el doctor  la doctora

el señor  la señora

 

Some nouns that refer to people use the same form for both masculine and feminine. These nouns indicate gender by the article (el or la).

el estudiante  la estudiante

el pianista  la pianista

el artista  la artista

 

Nouns that end in -sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre are feminine.

la televisión  la decisión  la conversación  la habitación  la ciudad  la universidad  la dificultad  la libertad  la actitud  la gratitud  la certidumbre  la muchedumbre

 

Some nouns that end in -a are masculine.

el problema  el telegrama  el programa  el mapa  el sistema  el poema  el día  el tema  el clima  el idioma  el sofá  el planeta

 

Many nouns that end in -ma are masculine. Notice that eight of the twelve nouns listed above end in -ma.

el telegrama  el programa  el problema  el sistema  el poema  el idioma  el clima  el tema

Note: A few nouns that end in -ma are feminine, such as la cama and la pluma.

 

Four of the nouns that end in -a are simply exceptions and must be memorized.

el día  el mapa  el planeta  el sofá

 

A few nouns that end in -o are feminine.

la mano  la radio

 

Review of the rules learned in lesson 1 and lesson 2. •Many nouns that denote living things have both a masculine and a feminine form. •Most nouns that end in -o are masculine. •Most nouns that end in -a are feminine. •Masculine nouns that end in a consonant often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in -a. •Some nouns that refer to people use the same form for both masculine and feminine. These nouns indicate gender by the article (el or la). •Nouns that end in -sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre are feminine. •Many nouns that end in -ma are masculine. •A few nouns that end in -o are feminine

You now know most of the rules for determining the gender of a noun. There are just a few more things to know, but they won’t be covered until later. Remember, whenever you learn a new noun, learn it complete with its definite article (el, la). Definite articles are the subject of an upcoming lesson.

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